"The census has a profound impact on the way that our nation chooses its leaders...
Under Title 13, U.S.C., the Secretary of Commerce is required to submit the state population totals to the President within nine months of Census Day. Title 2, U.S.C. then requires the President to submit the apportionment to the Clerk of the House within five days of the convening of a new Congress.
After the states receive the number of districts allowed per state, it is their responsibility every decade to draw the boundaries of those districts in their states. This process is called “redistricting.” In some states, the legislature is responsible for redistricting, while in others, independent commissions set redistricting plans.
Both reapportionment and redistricting directly impact the local, state, and national leaders voted to serve in office because of the politics involved in redistricting in each state. For example, many states, led by the majority party, have drawn districts in such a way that opponents to the majority party are sequestered in just a few districts, leading to district maps that are skewed towards one party. In effect this has lowered or even eliminated the competition for seats in the House of Representatives, which has impacted the competition of House seats nationally. This process is called 'gerrymandering”.